Metabolic inflammation as a cause of insulin resistance
In previous articles, I have discussed the role of metabolic Inflammation in obesity and diabetes. Today, we will narrow down to the specifics of what insulin resistance is, its effects, and how metabolic inflammation increases the chances of one developing it.
Approximately 30% of Americans, and up to 50% in the 60 years and over bracket, have a silent blood sugar problem known as insulin resistance. It begins when cells in your muscles, body fat, and liver repel or ignore the signal sent out by the hormone insulin to take glucose from bloodstream into our cells for breakdown or storage. Glucose, commonly called blood sugar and is the body’s main source of fuel.
Insulin resistance increases the risk for prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and a host of other serious health problems, including heart attacks, strokes and cancer.
Some factors that determine insulin resistance are aging and ethnicity, but the driving forces seems to be excess body weight, too much belly fat, a lack of exercise, smoking, and even sleep depravity.
As the insulin resistance develops, more insulin is produced by your body as it tries to fight back. After an accumulated period of time, several years even, the beta cells in your pancreas get worn out because of all the extra work and can no longer keep pace with the increased demand for insulin. Then – years after insulin resistance stealthily began – your blood sugar may spike and you may manifest prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. You are also at risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition that increases your risk for liver damage and heart disease.
Insulin resistance does not always manifest to the naked eye but here are other possible signs that are visible:
As early as 1950’s, a connection between inflammation and insulin resistance seemed to present especially in the obese, but the mechanics of the link were unknown. Recently, this has become clearer. Research has shown an association between the body activating signal pathways for inflammation over and over and a decrease in insulin sensitivity which is a rise in insulin resistance. Elevated levels of many inflammation signaling molecules (cytokines) and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) were found in those with insulin resistance and its symptoms, especially those that were obese.
An estimated 87 million American adults have prediabetes; 30-50% will go on to develop full-blown type 2 diabetes., and up to 80% of people with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. But those aren’t the only threats posed by insulin resistance.
Thanks to years of high insulin levels followed by an onslaught of cell-damaging high blood sugar, people with insulin resistance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance doubles your risk for heart attack and stroke and triples the odds that your heart attack or ‘brain attack’ will be deadly, according to the International Diabetes Federation.
Meanwhile, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are also linked with higher risk for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, cervix, pancreas, prostate and uterus. The connection: High insulin levels early in insulin resistance seem to fuel the growth of tumors and to suppress the body’s ability to protect itself by killing off malignant cells.
Research has also found a strong association between insulin resistance and memory function decline, increasing the risk for Alzheimer’s disease
Research has also found a strong association between insulin resistance and memory function decline, increasing the risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
As obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation is responsible for the decrease of insulin sensitivity, so obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes. The state of low-grade inflammation is caused by over-nutrition which leads to lipid accumulation in adipocytes and interferes with insulin signaling and action. This interference only adds to the cascade of errors (pathogenesis) that leads to insulin resistance. It has been suggested that specific factors and signaling pathways are often correlated with each other; therefore, both the accumulation and the interference mentioned should be studied further to fully understand the connection between inflammation and insulin resistance.